HOW TO USE THIS ONLINE MAGAZINE
by clicking the arrows at the side of the page.
by clicking anywhere on the page. A slider will appear, allowing you to adjust your zoom level.
and move the page around when zoomed in by dragging the page.
and return to the original size by clicking on the page again.
by entering text in the search field and click on "In This Issue" or "All Issues" to search the current issue or the archive of back issues
a PDF of this magazine.
by clicking on thumbnails to select pages, and then press the print button.
a page via email, Facebook, Twitter and more.
TO VIEW PREVIOUS EDITIONS
, click the
button at the bottom of the screen.
Beyond the Bale : March 2014
Vaccinating ewes and lambs FAST FACTS l Clostridial diseases (tetanus, blackleg, black disease, malignant oedema and pulpy kidney) can be prevented by implementing a vaccination program prior to lambing. l So with autumn lambing approaching, woolgrowers should consider if the pre-disposing conditions for the development of clostridial diseases exist, and adopt prevention strategies. l The Healthy and Contented Sheep module from the Making More From Sheep manual provides advice on a range of health and welfare issues regarding sheep flocks. With autumn lambing not far away, now is a good time for woolgrowers to look at their prevention plans against clostridial diseases: tetanus, blackleg, black disease, malignant oedema and pulpy kidney. The widespread adoption of preventative vaccination has reduced sheep losses associated with these diseases. However, they remain a major threat to animal health, welfare and consequently farm profitability if an appropriate prevention plan is not implemented. Preventative vaccination is the only viable means of control. Eradication of clostridial diseases is not possible, and treatment is expensive and usually not successful. The conditions when these diseases are likely to occur are: • Tetanus: penetrating wounds including marking wounds • Blackleg: muscle bruising, growing animals • Black disease: liver fluke infestation • Malignant oedema: wounds • Pulpy kidney: lush pasture, heavy grain feeding, change of feed. If these conditions exist, adopt management strategies to prevent the diseases. With all clostridial disease consider the local risk based on previous local district history and property history. Intensification is likely to increase risk of clostridial diseases such as blackleg and pulpy kidney. In outbreaks of pulpy kidney, removing stock from lush pasture, or cutting back on supplementary grain feeding, will often stop deaths. Vaccinating ewes and lambs is another way that woolgrowers care for the welfare of their flock. The Healthy and Contented Sheep module from the Making More From Sheep manual provides the following vaccination strategies. • For maximum protection of young lambs, vaccinate ewes 2-6 weeks before lambing. • For the protection of lambs, vaccinate at marking and give a booster 4-8 weeks later (weaning). • For older stock, an annual booster should be given, timed before high-risk periods or more frequently in high-risk situations, such as grain feeding in drought or grazing high-quality fodder crops. • For new stock, implement vaccination procedures as for normal stock. If the history of vaccination is known, implement the flock program. If the vaccination history is not known, give an initial dose, then a booster 4-8 weeks later. Note that one dose does not provide any protection. Several companies sell vaccine as either 3-in-1 (pulpy kidney, tetanus, cheesy gland) or 5-in-1 (pulpy kidney, tetanus, black disease, blackleg, malignant oedema) or Many vets recommend that a clostridial vaccination program should always be a part of the annual animal health regime as the cost is very low compared to the risk. 6-in-1 (clostridial diseases and cheesy gland). Vaccines are also available in combination with vitamin B12 and trace elements such as selenium but should only be used when cobalt or selenium are deficient. Cheesy gland vaccine is incorporated in the clostridial vaccine, either as 3-in-1 or 6-in-1. Initially two doses are required to provide protection, and then an annual booster is necessary to maintain it. Infection from cheesy gland is most commonly through shearing cuts, so it is good husbandry to avoid dipping recently shorn sheep until shearing cuts are healed. The Healthy and Contented Sheep module from the Making More From Sheep manual presents an effective approach for woolgrowers to manage a full range of health and welfare issues of their flock, including worms, flies and lice. The module aims to give producers confidence that sheep parasites and diseases can be managed in a cost-effective manner to maximise enterprise profitability. Making More From Sheep is a joint initiative of AWI and MLA. More information: www.makingmorefromsheep.com.au A joint initiative of 42 ON-FARM March 2014 BEYOND THE BALE