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Beyond the Bale : June 2018
AWI makes available publications about breech flystrike prevention on its website at www.wool.com/flystrikelatest Here is a selection of the available publications: BREECH FLYSTRIKE PREVENTION PUBLICATIONS MANAGING BREECH FLYSTRIKE JUNE 2017 MANAGING BREECH FLYSTRIKE (June 2017) This 44-page manual is designed to help woolgrowers further reduce their flock’s flystrike risk. It includes coverage of management options, breech modification, scouring and worm control, breeding for breech strike resistance and moving to a non mulesed enterprise. PLANNING FOR A NON-MULESED MERINO ENTERPRISE (March 2018) This 16-page report outlines the key learnings from a number of wool-growing enterprises, from a diverse range of environments and Merino types, that have moved to a non-mulesed enterprise. PLANNING FOR A NON-MULESED MERINO ENTERPRISE Wrinkle andDags are the main causes ofbreech strike followed byBreech Coverand Urine Stain. AWI -funded research conducted atArmidale NSW(CSIRO)and MtBarker WA(DAFWA)shows that every 0.1 reduction inbreech trait scores, lowers the risk oflifetime breech strikefor both mulesed and un-mulesed animals. Table 1 oppositeis asummary ofthe Australian SheepBreedingValues(ASBVs) of 158AIsiresfrom 27Merinostuds,from the MERINOSELECTwebsite, listedinincreasing Breech Wrinkle order. The variation inAI sire stud averages are large forWrinkle, Cover and the keyproduction indexes; Breech Wrinkle averages rangesfrom -1 .2 to +0.9,BreechCover from -1.3 to0.3 and the indexes around60 indexpoints. The Wrinkle ASBVrequiredto move toa non- mules operation without alarge increase in chemical control, varies with factors such as climate, managementsystems, the size ofthe commercialproperty and nutritional value ofthepastures. WrinkleASBVscan be higher for sheep raised on low protein and low energy country asthe sheep ‘express’ less wrinkle when run in these environments. In production systems with high nutritional levels, more emphasis needstobe placed on lower Wrinkle ASBVs. There are 5 non-mules studslistedin thetable withdiffering wrinkle scores; StudsNine andTen have an AI sire average WrinkleASBVsof-0.3 ,StudFive averages -0.8 and StudsTwo and One average -1.0and-1.2. However, for sheepthatare moderate or high inthekeybreech traitscores, any reduction inWrinkle,Dag and Cover will reducethe lifetime risk ofbreech strike. Thelower the score pre-mulesing,thelower the score post- mulesing. Breedingfor goodproductivity as well as welfare isimportant for the commercial viabilityofthe stud and itsclients. There isatrendin the table thatshows thelower Wrinkle studshave lower AdultFleece Weight.Butsome studsbuck the trend.Stud Seven hasthe highestAdultFleece Weight at +24 with a relatively low Wrinkle at -0.4 showingthe extent towhich some studs and sires are bendingthe curve. andthereby reducinglifetime welfare risks and not sacrificingfleece weight. Studs with similarAdultFleece Weight andFibre Diameter can have considerable variation inWrinkle. StudsEight,Fourteen, Nineteen andTwenty Three have reasonably similar AdultFleece Weights(+17, +15, +15 and +14)andFibre Diameter (-0.8 , -1 .1 , -1 .1 and - 0.7)butlarge variation inWrinkle(-0.3,0.0, +0.1 , +0.4). There is also considerable variation between the studs’ AI sires fordags and worm resistance. These traits can be important inhigh worm and dagcountry and not important inlowdag andlow worm country. There is atrendfor lower Fertility with increasingWrinkle andFleeceWeight. However StudsThirteen, Seventeen and Twenty Two have similar NLW(5%,4% and 3%)andFleeceWeights(9, 7, 11)buthave reasonable differences in Fibre Diameter (-0.2, -2.0and-1.1)andWrinkle(0.0,0.1and 0.4), which again shows there are curve bendingsires. StudsTwenty Four, TwentySix andTwenty Seven have low Fibre Diameter (-3 .0 , -3.0 and - 2.5)andhighWrinkle +0.5, +0.6 and +0.9. The pathto non-mules without ahigh reliance on chemicals and other Dag reduction toolsis a long one for mostlow Fibre DiameterFine and Super Fine studs, but every 0.1 reduction improves lifetime welfare. AsASBVsbecome more robust with increasingdatabeing collectedbybreeders (particularly AdultFleece Weight,Breech traits andFertility, atjoining, scanning, lambingand weaning)and withthe outcomes oftheAWIMerino Lifetime Productivity project,the confidence and speed which breeders willbeabletoimprove productivity as wellas welfare traits will increase. Knowinghow genetics and environment interact to create an animal’s phenotype on a commercialproperty is an importantstep inknowing whattargetsto set,to maximise lifetime productivity and welfare. Breech Wrinkle and Dags are the key breech strike risk traits. Every 0.1 reduction reduces the lifetime risk of breech strike. As there is a general unfavourable relationship between fleece weight and wrinkle, it is important to pursue sires that are good for both (as well as fertility, growth, structure and the other resilience/welfare traits, in a balanced approach). There are sires and studs that bend this relationship; these “curve benders” are relatively higher in fleece weight and lower in wrinkle. REDUCE THE RISK OF BREECH STRIKE LOWER WRINKLE AND DAGS 40 ON FAR M WHY SHOULD WOOLGROWERS CONSIDER USING PAIN RELIEF PRODUCTS? Thesupply chains for both wool and meat are becomingincreasinglyinterestedintheir suppliers’ husbandrypractices. Onfarm adoption of pain reliefformulesing hasbeen rapid. In theten years since Tri- Solfen® was first registered, 75 per cent of Merinos mulesed now receive pain relief. Pain relief with a specific claimfor knife castration andknifetaildocking was first registeredforuse in 2016 and adoption rates willbe monitored over the comingyears. Pain relief with a specific claimfor ring castration and ringtaildockingis not yet commercially available. R&D continues for a technique calledNumnuts® whichinjects local anaestheticjust above the ring. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANALGESIC AND ANAESTHETIC PAIN RELIEF TREATMENTS? Analgesicsprovide relieffrom pain while retaining most sensory function. There are a range ofproducts with alarge variation inthe intensity and duration ofpain reliefprovided. Active compounds can take 10 to 15 minutes to reach optimum blood concentration and they require the pain enzymes tobe created at the site oftissue damage before they can actandthe release ofpain enzymes can also beslow to ramp up.Theylastfor varying times dependingon how quicklythe active compoundis metabolised and excreted. • Mi ldtomoderatepain relief: (a)Paracetamol, alsoknown as Acetaminophen, PAIN RELIEF FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS There has been large scale adoption of post-operative pain relief (Tri-Solfen®) during the past ten years. New pre-operative products Buccalgesic® and Metacam 20® were released in 2016. Here we provide answers to some frequently asked questions about pain relief. (b)Non-SteroidalAnti-Inflammatory Drugs such as aspirin, meloxicam (Buccalgesic® andMetacam 20®)and carprofen, and (c) mildOpioidssuch as codeine. • Strong pain relief,Opioidssuch as morphine. Opioidsact on the nervous system, rather than on the enzyme production at the site oftissuedamage. They can produce hallucinations and can be addictive. (There are also other types ofdrugs such as Corticosteroidsthatare injectedtoasiteto reduceinflammation, along withAnti-anxiety andAnti-depressant drugsthatalsoprovide pain relief.) Anaestheticsblockpain and sensory function islost.There are three main types: local, regional andgeneralanaesthetics, mosttakingfrom 2 to 10 minutestotake effect.Theytypicallydo notprovide long- lastingpain relief. • Local(egdental)and regional(eg epidural)anaesthetics are administered subcutaneously or topically and desensitise a definedlocation. (Tri-Solfen®) • General anaesthetics create a medically induced coma, a state ofunconsciousness and are administered byinjection or inhaled.The patientcannotmove, feel pain, remember and breathing may needto beassisted. FOR WHOLE FLOCK TREATMENTS, ARE ANAESTHETIC OR ANALGESIC, PRE-OPERATIVEOR POST- OPERATIVEPRODUCTS BETTER? There are noblack and white answers with so many variablesandfactors to consider including: • availabilityofaproducttolivestock producers and veterinarians • availab ility of ve te rin ary p re sc rip tion and oversight • throughput requiredper day • restraintrequirements • time and method oftreatment • abilityofthe animal tobreathe unassistedduringtreatment • time and supervision required posttreatment • abilityofthelambto motherup • type ofhusbandrypractice and method used • li kelihood of adverse impacttohumans • degree of pain reliefprovided • practicality and cost. Welfare trials offer the mostvaluable information abouthow effective the treatment is, yetthese stillrequire an overall subjective expert assessmentofthe 30 or so measures used,because no single measure tellsthe whole story. For specific advice contactyour veterinarian. WHAT PURPOSES HAS THE APVMA APPROVED THE PAIN RELIEF PRODUCTS FOR? TheAustralian Pesticide andVeterinary Medicine Authority(APVMA)has registered productsfor the followingpurposes: • Tri-Solfen®forpain relieffollowing mulesing, castration and taildocking • Metacam 20®for alleviation of pain andinflammation • Buccalgesic® for alleviation of pain andinflammation forcastration and taildocking. Buccalgesic® being applied to the internal cheek of a lamb. Metacam 20®, a subcutaneous injection high on the neck behind the ear. Numnuts® protoype applicator; R&D continues. Tri-Solfen®, a topical local anaesthetic and antiseptic gel spray. 34 ON FAR M BREEDING LOWER WRINKLE AND DAG (June 2017) PAIN RELIEF: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (March 2017) Each is a 2-page summary article from Beyond the Bale. AWI BREECH STRIKE RD&E PROGRAM - IMPROVING LIFETIME WELFARE (November 2017) Presentation slides that outline the outcomes of AWI’s Breech Strike RD&E Program since 2005. There are five key areas of work: (1) Breeding and Selection, (2) Breech Modification, (3) Improved Management, (4) Domestic Extension and (5) International Supply Chain Communication. DAFWA BREECH STRIKE RESISTANCE PROJECT NEWSLETTER ISSUE 7 (July 2017) CSIRO ARMIDALE BREECH STRIKE GENETICS NEWSLETTER ISSUE 7 (November 2016) Newsletters from the Breech Strike Genetics project funded by AWI. BREECHSTRIKERESISTANCEPROJECTNEWSLETTER WA IssueNo 7 JULY 2017 1 Breech Strike Genetics This project is a collaborative research effortof Department of Agriculture andFoodWestern Australia, University of Western Australia, CSIRO Animal,FoodandHealth Sciences,Armidale, NSWsupported by Australian Wool Innovation Limited. Editorial The Breech strike project was initiated in 2006 with the establishment of the research flock on the Mt Barkerresearch station in Western Australia. Sixhundred Merino ewes were sourced from10 industryand 3 research station flocks from the Departmentof Agriculture of Western Australia. The project went through three different phases to identify the role of potential indicator traits in breech strike. Phase 1 Duringthe first phase (2006-2007), rates of breech strike of mulesed versus non-mulesed sheep were compared to determinewhetherthereare sheep that have not been mulesed that have the same likelihood of being struckin the breech byflies as a mulesed flock,in ascenario where sheep are not crutched. As expected, mulesing resulted in a significant decrease in breech strike. However, someun-mulesed sheepwere indeedfound that had the same low risk of beingstruck as mulesed sheep. This indicated that some sheep were genetically more resistant to breech strike than other sheepevenwhennotmulesedor crutched. Phase 2 Phase 2 (2008-2010) focussed on those facto rs which made some sheep more resistantto being struck and the results showed that dags during late winter and urine stain atpost-weaning age were the two mostimportantfactors contributing to breech strike in un-mulesedsheep and sheep that have notbeen crutched. However, breech wrinkle had a significant interaction with dags as a one unit increase in wrinkle score, from1 to 2, increased the riskof being struck.Breech cover played a relatively minor role but did increase the risk by2-3% .These results supported industry’s perception of the importance of dags in breech st rike . Further investigations showed that there were huge differences between different sire progeny groupsintheirsusceptibility to breech strike in un- mulesedandun-crutched sheep. In 2008,only 2.8% (one lamb) of the most resistantsire’s progeny were struckwhile a strikerateof 103% was recorded for the progeny group of the most susceptible sire. Virtually every lamb of this progeny group was struckand some were struck twice between birth and hogget shearing. These large differencesbetween resistant and susceptible sireprogenygroups was a major finding butwhat was more interestingwas that it was notpossible to visually differentiatebetween the progeny groupsusing dag, urine stain, wrinkles,breech cover oranyother visual indicators. Furthermore, only about 20 to 30% of the differences in breech strike could be explained geneticallyby dags,urinestain, breech cover and breech wrinkle traits, which indicated that other factors are contributing to making the susceptible sire progeny groupmore prone to breech strike. Phase 3 The third phase (2010-2014) of the experiment focussed on identifying those factors that contributed to susceptibility and resistance to breech strike in the absenceof dags, i.e, when animals are crutched orshorn just prior to the fly season. This is representative of production systems in winterrainfallregions where all sheep arenormally crutched before the onset of the winter/spring. Thisnewsletterreports some of the mostimportant results fromthis phase and onthe latestresults fromour workto identifyadditional factors, suchas odour,thatcould play a role in making susceptible sheep mo re attractive to blowflies. This Project is a collaborative research effort of CSIRO Agriculture, Armidale, NSW and Department of Agriculture and Food WA supported by Australian Wool Innovation Limited Issue 7 Armidale November 2016 Breech Strike Genetics With completion of the Breech strike genetics projects at Armidale, this is the last newsletter in this series. The experimental program for the project was complete in 2015 once the 2014 drop progeny were recorded to yearling age. Since then, the focus has been on statistical analysis of the entire dataset and reporting to AWI. Here we include a summary of the genetic analyses and implications for the wool growing industry. We also report on some of the other activities that were undertaken in the last few years fo the study. The sheep are not going to disappear just yet. The breeding flock will become part of the base ewe flock of the New England site Merino Lifetime Productivity Project and will continued to be recorded for certain traits for the next couple of years. The 2014 drop progeny were the last to be fully recorded up to yearling age. The last few years of the project were a little challenging climatically for breech strike genetics work at Armidale. We went through a particularly dry period in 2013 and 2014. The flock was supplementary fed continuously from mating in early April 2013 to the end of lambing in October 2014. Alongside that, the 2013-14 fly season was particularly long; running from mid- October 2013 to late June 2014. We have conducted a genomics project using the Ovine High Density (600K) beadchip, results of which are summarised here. Dr Sonja Dominic, the CSIRO scientist who conducted the analysis regards this work as a ‘comprehensive first pass’ at investigating the genomics of breech flystrike. We have also been collecting wool and skin samples from animals in the Armidale flock for collaborative work with DAFWA and UWA on skin bacterial populations of Resistant and Susceptible sheep, and work on wool odour. In this issue Summary of genetic analyses 2 Flystrike results in 2013-14 3 Flystrike genomics project summary 4 Tail-docking methods 6 Observations of the breeding flock ewes 7 Figure 1. Armidale Breech Strike Genetics flock ewes and lambs on the plots at lambing 2014 44 ON FARM
In the Shops - September 2018