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Beyond the Bale : March 2018
The 16-page report outlines the key learnings from a number of wool- growing enterprises, from a diverse range of environments and Merino types, that have moved to a non mulesed enterprise. While mulesing has been shown to reduce breech strike by 90%, in 2016/17 7% of the Australian Merino clip (less than 24.5 microns) was declared as non mulesed through AWEX’s National Wool Declaration. Moving to a non mulesed enterprise isn’t easy, however there is a trend to non mulesed wool. Key learnings to keep in mind from these businesses when considering a move to a non mulesed Merino enterprise include: • It is important to have a detailed plan in place that has the support of everyone in your business – including staff, contractors, shearers, livestock agents and ram suppliers. • The business needs to be brave, organised and determined to make it work in the early years. • Moving to a non mulesed enterprise often requires fundamental change to the whole business. MORE INFORMATION The manual is available at www.wool.com/flystrikelatest or request a free hard copy version from the AWI Helpline on 1800 070 099. Copyright © 2017 – Australian Wool Innovation Ltd. All rights reserved. AWI BREECH STRIKE RD&E PROGRAM IMPROVING LIFETIME WELFARE MASTER - NOV 2017 GEOFF LINDON AWI AWI BREECH STRIKE RD&E PROGRAM - IMPROVING LIFETIME WELFARE (November 2017) Presentation slides that outline the outcomes of AWI’s Breech Strike RD&E Program since 2005. There are five key areas of work: (1) Breeding and Selection, (2) Breech Modification, (3) Improved Management, (4) Domestic Extension and (5) International Supply Chain Communication. A new AWI report that is intended to assist woolgrowers in planning to move to a non mulesed Merino enterprise is available in hard copy and online. AWI makes available publications about breech flystrike prevention on its website at www.wool.com/flystrikelatest. Here is a selection of the available publications: PLANNING TO MOVE TO A NON MULESED MERINO ENTERPRISE BREECH FLYSTRIKE PREVENTION PUBLICATIONS BREECH STRIKE RESISTANCE PROJECT NEWSLETTER WA Issue No 7 JULY 201 7 1 Breech Strike Genetics This projectis acollaborative research effort of Department of Agricultureand Food WesternAustralia, Universityof Western Australia, CSIRO Animal,Food and Health Sciences, Armidale, NSW supportedby Australian WoolInnovation Limited. Editorial TheBreech strike project was initiated in 2006 with theestablishment of theresearch flock on the Mt Barker research station in Western Australia. Six hundred Merino ewes were sourcedfrom10 industry and3 research station flocks fromthe Department ofAgriculture of Western Australia. Theproject went through threedifferentphasesto identifythe role ofpotentialindicatortraitsin breech strike. Phase 1 Duringthefirst phase(2006-2007), rates ofbreech strike of mulesed versus non-mulesed sheep were compared todetermine whetherthere aresheep that havenot been mulesed that havethesame likelihood of being struckin the breech byfliesas a mulesed flock,in a scenario where sheep are not crutched. As expected, mulesing resulted in a significant decreasein breech strike. However, some un-mulesed sheep were indeed foundthat had the same low risk of being struck as mulesed sheep. Thisindicated that some sheep were geneticallymoreresistant to breech strike than othersheep even when not mulesed or crutched. Phase 2 Phase2 (2008-2010) focussed on those factors which made some sheep more resistant to being struck and the results showed that dags during late winter and urine stain at post-weaning age were thetwo most important factors contributingto breech strikein un-mulesed sheep and sheep that havenot been crutched.However, breech wrinkle had a significant interactionwith dags as a one unit increasein wrinkle score, from1 to 2, increased the risk of being struck.Breech cover played a relativelyminor role butdid increase the riskby2-3%. These resultssupported industry ’s perceptionof theimportance of dags in breech st rik e. Furtherinvestigationsshowed that therewere hugedifferencesbet weendifferent sire progeny groups in their susceptibilityto breech strikein un- mulesed and un-crutched sheep. In 2008, only 2.8%(onelamb) ofthe most resistant sire’s progeny were struck while a strike rate of103% was recorded forthe progeny group ofthemost susceptible sire. Virtuallyeverylamb of this progenygroup was struck and some were struck twicebetween birth and hogget shearing. These largedifferencesbetween resistant and susceptible sire progenygroups was a major findingbut what was moreinteresting wasthat it was not possibleto visuallydifferentiate between theprogenygroups usingdag, urine stain, wrinkles, breech cover or any othervisual indicators. Furthermore, onlyabout20 to30% of thedifferences inbreech strike could be explained geneticallybydags, urine stain, breech cover and breech wrinkle traits, whichindicated that other factors are contributingto making the susceptible sire progenygroup more proneto breech strike. Phase 3 Thethird phase(2010-2014) oftheexperiment focussed onidentifyingthosefactorsthat contributed tosusceptibilityand resistanceto breech strikein theabsence of dags, i.e, when animals are crutched or shornjust priorto thefly season. This is representativeof production systems in winter rainfall regionswhere all sheep are normally crutched before theonset of the winter/spring.Thi s newsletter reports some of the most important results fromthisphase and on the latest resultsfrom our workto identifyadditional factors, such as odour, that could play a rolein making susceptiblesheep more attractiveto b low flie s. WHY SHOULD WOOLGROWERS CONSIDERUSING PAIN RELIEF PRODU CTS ? Thesupply chains forboth wooland meat are becomingincreasinglyinterestedintheir suppliers’ husbandrypractices. Onfarm adoption of pain relief formulesing hasbeen rapid.Intheten years since Tri- Solfen®was first registered, 75 per cent of Merinosmulesed now receive pain relief. Pain relief with a specific claimfor knife castration andknifetaildocking was first registeredfor use in 2016 and adoption rates willbe monitored overthe coming years. Pain relief with a specific claimfor ring castration and ring taildockingis not yet commercially available. R&D continuesfor a technique calledNumnuts® whichinjects local anaestheticjust above the ring. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANALGESIC AND ANAESTHETIC PAIN RELIEF TREATMENTS? Analgesicsprovide relieffrom pain while retaining most sensoryfunction. There are a range ofproductswith alarge variation inthe intensity and duration of pain relief provided. Active compoundscan take 10 to15 minutes to reach optimum bloodconcentration and theyrequire thepain enzymestobe created at the site oftissuedamagebefore they can act andthe release ofpain enzymes can also beslow to ramp up.Theylastforvarying timesdepending on howquicklythe active compoundismetabolisedand excreted. • M ildtomoderatepain relief: (a)Paracetamol,alsoknown as Acetaminophen, PAIN RELIEF FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS There has been large scale adoption of post-operative pain relief (Tri-Solfen®) during the past ten years. New pre-operative products Buccalgesic® and Metacam 20® were released in 2016. Here we provide answers to some frequently asked questions about pain relief. (b)Non-SteroidalAnti-Inflammatory Drugs such as aspirin, meloxicam (Buccalgesic® andMetacam 20®)andcarprofen, and (c) mildOpioidssuch as codeine. • Strong pain relief,Opioidssuch as morphine. Opioidsact on the nervous system, rather than on the enzyme production at the site oftissuedamage. They can produce hallucinations and can be addictive. (There are also other types of drugs such as Corticosteroidsthat are injectedtoasiteto reduce inflammation, along withAnti-anxiety andAnti-depressantdrugsthat alsoprovide pain relief.) Anaestheticsblockpain and sensory function islost.There are three maintypes: local, regional andgeneral anaesthetics, most taking from 2 to10minutestotake effect.Theytypicallydonot providelong- lasting pain relief. • Local(egdental)and regional(eg epidural)anaesthetics are administered subcutaneously ortopicallyanddesensitise a definedlocation. (Tri-Solfen®) • General anaesthetics create a medically induced coma, a state of unconsciousness and are administered byinjection or inhaled.Thepatient cannot move, feel pain, remember and breathing may needto be assisted. FOR WHOLE FLOCK TREATMENTS, ARE ANAESTHETIC OR ANALGESIC, PRE-OPERATIVE OR POST- OPERATIVE PRODUCTS BETTER? There are no blackandwhite answers with so many variablesandfactors to consider including: • availabilityof a product tolivestock producersand veterinarians • availabilityof veterinary prescription and oversight • t hroughput requiredper day • restraint requirements • t ime and method oftreatment • abilityof the animal tobreathe unassistedduringtreatment • t ime and supervision required post treatment • abilityof thelambto motherup • ty pe of husbandrypractice and method used • likelihood of adverse impacttohumans • degree of pain relief provided • practicality and cost. Welfare trials offer the most valuable information about how effective the treatment is,yet these still require an overall subjective expert assessment ofthe30 or so measures used,because no single measure tellsthe whole story.For specific advice contactyour veterinarian. WHAT PURPOSES HAS THE APVMA APPROVED THE PAIN RELIEF PRODUCTS FOR? TheAustralian PesticideandVeterinary Medicine Authority(APVMA)has registered productsforthefollowingpurposes: • Tri-S olfe n® f or pa in reli ef followi ng mulesing, castration andtaildocking • Metacam 20®for alleviation of pain andinflammation • Buccalgesic®for alleviation of pain andinflammation forcastration and taildocking. Buccalgesic® being applied tothe internal cheekofa lamb. Metacam 20®, asubcutaneousinjection highonthe neck behind theear. Numnuts®protoypeapplicator; R&Dcontinues. Tri-Solfen®, a topical localanaestheticand antisepticgelspray. 34 ON FA RM Wrinkle andDags are the main causes of breech strike followed byBreech Cover and Urine Stain. AWI -funded research conducted atArmidaleNSW(CSIRO)and MtBarker WA(DAFWA)shows that every0.1 reduction inbreech trait scores, lowers the risk oflifetime breech strikefor both mulesed and un-mulesed animals. Table 1 oppositeis a summary of the Australian SheepBreedingValues(ASBVs) of 158 AI siresfrom 27 Merinostuds, from the MERINOSELECTwebsite, listedinincreasing Breech Wrinkle order. The variation inAI sire stud averages are largefor Wrinkle, Cover and thekeyproduction indexes; Breech Wrinkle averages rangesfrom -1.2 to +0.9 ,BreechCover from -1 .3 to0.3 andthe indexesaround60 index points. TheWrinkleASBV requiredto move to a non- mulesoperation without alargeincrease in chemical control, varies with factors such asclimate, management systems,the size of the commercialproperty and nutritional value of thepastures. WrinkleASBVscan be higher forsheep raised on lowprotein and lowenergy country asthe sheep ‘express’ less wrinkle when run inthese environments. In production systems with high nutritional levels, more emphasis needstobe placed on lower WrinkleASBVs. There are 5 non-mules studslistedinthe table withdiffering wrinkle scores; StudsNine andTen have an AI sire averageWrinkleASBVsof -0.3 ,StudFive averages -0.8 andStudsTwoand One average -1.0and-1.2. However,for sheepthat are moderate or high inthekeybreech trait scores, any reduction inWrinkle,Dag and Coverwill reducethe lifetime riskofbreech strike. Thelower the score pre-mulesing,thelowerthe score post- mulesing. Breedingfor goodproductivity as well as welfare isimportant forthe commercial viabilityofthe stud anditsclients. There isatrendinthetablethat shows thelower Wrinkle studshave lower AdultFleece Weight.But some studsbuckthetrend.Stud Seven hasthehighest Adult FleeceWeight at +24 with a relatively low Wrinkle at -0.4 showing the extent to which some studs and sires are bending the curve. andthereby reducing lifetime welfare risks and not sacrificingfleece weight. Studswith similar AdultFleece Weight andFibre Diameter can have considerable variation inWrinkle. StudsEight,Fourteen, Nineteen andTwenty Three have reasonably similar Adult FleeceWeights(+17, +15, +15 and +14)andFibre Diameter (-0.8, -1 .1 , -1.1 and -0.7)but large variation inWrinkle (-0.3 ,0.0, +0. 1, +0. 4). There is also considerable variation between the studs’ AI siresfor dagsand worm resistance. Thesetraits can beimportant inhigh worm and dag country and not important inlow dag andlow worm country. There is a trendfor lower Fertilitywith increasingWrinkle andFleeceWeight. However StudsThirteen, Seventeen and Twenty Two have similarNLW(5%,4% and 3%)andFleeceWeights(9, 7, 11)but have reasonabledifferencesinFibre Diameter (-0.2 , -2.0 and -1 .1)andWrinkle (0.0,0.1 and 0.4), which again showsthere are curve be n ding sire s. StudsTwentyFour, TwentySix andTwenty Seven have low Fibre Diameter (-3 .0, -3.0and -2 .5)andhighWrinkle +0.5, +0.6 and +0.9 .The pathtonon-mules without ahigh reliance on chemicals and otherDag reduction toolsis a long one for most low Fibre DiameterFine andSuperFine studs, but every0.1 reduction improves lifetime welfare. AsASBVsbecome more robust with increasingdatabeing collectedbybreeders (particularly AdultFleece Weight,Breech traits andFertility, at joining, scanning, lambing and weaning)and withthe outcomes of theAWIMerino Lifetime Productivity project,the confidence and speed which breeders willbeabletoimprove productivity as wellas welfare traits willincrease. Knowinghow genetics and environment interact to create an animal’s phenotype on a commercialproperty is an important step inknowing what targetsto set,to maximise lifetime productivity and welfare. Breech Wrinkle and Dags are the key breech strike risk traits. Every 0.1 reduction reduces the lifetime risk of breech strike. As there is a general unfavourable relationship between fleece weight and wrinkle, it is important to pursue sires that are good for both (as well as fertility, growth, structure and the other resilience/welfare traits, in a balanced approach). There are sires and studs that bend this relationship; these “curve benders” are relatively higher in fleece weight and lower in wrinkle. REDUCE THE RISK OF BREECH STRIKE LOWER WRINKLE AND DAGS 40 ON FA RM Geoff Lindon Australian Wool Innovation Introduction AWI Breech Strike R&D Technical Update Maritime Museum, Sydney 12th July 2016 AWI’S BREECH FLYSTRIKE R&D TECHNICAL UPDATE PRESENTATION (July 2016) Presentation slides from AWI’s Breech Flystrike R&D Technical Update events held in 2016, 2014, 2012 and 2010. DAFWA BREECH STRIKE RESISTANCE PROJECT NEWSLETTER ISSUE 7 (July 2017) CSIRO ARMIDALE BREECH STRIKE GENETICS NEWSLETTER ISSUE 7 (November 2016) Newsletters from the Breech Strike Genetics project funded by AWI. BREEDING LOWER WRINKLE AND DAG (June 2017) PAIN RELIEF: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (March 2017) Each is a 2-page summary article from Beyond the Bale. ThisProject is a collaborative research effort ofCSIRO Agriculture, Armidale, NSW and Department of Agriculture and Food WA supported by AustralianWool Innovation Limited Issue 7 Armidale November 2016 Breech Strike Genetics With completion of the Breech strike genetics projects at Armidale, this is the last newsletter in this series. The experimental program for the project was complete in 2015 once the 2014 drop progeny were recorded to yearling age. Since then, the focus has been on statistical analysis of the entire dataset and reporting to AWI. Here we include a summary of the genetic analyses and implications for the wool growing industry. We also report on some of the other activities that were undertaken in the last few years fo the study. The sheep are not going to disappear just yet. The breeding flock will become part of the base ewe flock of the New England site Merino Lifetime Productivity Project and will continued to be recorded for certain traits for the next couple of years. The 2014 drop progeny were the last to be fully recorded up to yearling age. The last few years of the project were a little challenging climatically for breech strike genetics work at Armidale. We went through a particularly dry period in 2013 and 2014. The flock was supplementary fed continuously from mating in early April 2013 to the end of lambing in October 2014. Alongside that, the 2013-14 fly season was particularly long; running from mid- October 2013 to late June 2014. We have conducted a genomics project using the Ovine High Density (600K) beadchip, results of which are summarised here. Dr Sonja Dominic, the CSIRO scientist who conducted the analysis regards this work as a ‘comprehensive first pass’ at investigating the genomics of breech flystrike. We have also been collecting wool and skin samples from animals in the Armidale flock for collaborative work with DAFWA and UWA on skin bacterial populations of Resistant and Susceptible sheep, and work on wool odour. In this issue Summary of genetic analyses 2 Flystrike results in 2013-14 3 Flystrike genomics project summary 4 Tail-docking methods 6 Observations of the breeding flock ewes 7 Figure 1. Armidale Breech Strike Genetics flock ewes and lambs on the plots at lambing 2014 MORE INFORMATION These publications are available at www.wool.com/flystrikelatest MANAGING BREECH FLYSTRIKE (June 2017) This 44-page manual is designed to help woolgrowers further reduce their flock’s flystrike risk. It includes coverage of management options, breech modification, scouring and worm control, breeding for breech strike resistance and moving to a non mulesed enterprise. ON FARM 55
In the Shops - March 2018