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Beyond the Bale : December 2017
Copyright © 2017 – Australian Wool Innovation Ltd. All rights reserv ed. AWI BREECH STRIKE RD&E PROGRAM IMPROVING LIFETIME WELFARE MASTER - NOV 2017 GEOFF LINDON AWI AWI BREECH STRIKE RD&E PROGRAM - IMPROVING LIFETIME WELFARE (November 2017) Presentation slides that outline the outcomes of AWI’s Breech Strike RD&E Program since 2005. There are five key areas of work: (1) Breeding and Selection, (2) Breech Modification, (3) Improved Management, (4) Domestic Extension and (5) International Supply Chain Communication. It is designed to help woolgrowers further reduce their flock’s flystrike risk and develop more effective flystrike control plans. The manual signposts to further information, primarily FlyBoss. There are a wide range of management and breeding options currently in use. Different combinations of the available tools will suit producers in different enterprises and regions with varying risk of flystrike incidence. The preferred combination of tools and strategies needs to fit individual woolgrower’s sheep enterprise requirements and other farm operations. It is important that producers continually review their plan to ensure that it is most effective and fits in well with the future markets and seasonal variability. The 44-page manual includes coverage of management options, such as the strategic use of chemicals, shearing and crutching; breech modification; scouring and worm control; breeding for breech strike resistance and moving to a non-mules enterprise. MORE INFORMATION The Managing Breech Flystrike manual is available at www.wool.com/flystrikelatest or request a free hard copy version from the AWI Helpline on 1800 070 099 AWI’s ‘Managing Breech Flystrike’ manual, which was released in 2011, was updated in June and is available in hard copy and online. AWI makes available publications about breech flystrike prevention on its website at www.wool.com/flystrikelatest. Here is a selection of the available publications: MANAGING BREECH FLYSTRIKE MANUAL UPDATED BREECH FLYSTRIKE PREVENTION PUBLICATIONS BREECH STRIKERESISTANCEPROJECT NEWSLETTER WAIssue No 7 JULY 2017 1 Breech Strike Genetics Thisprojectis acollaborativeresearch effort ofDepartment ofAgricultureandFood WesternAustralia, University ofWestern Australia, CSIRO Animal,Food andHealthSciences, Armidale, NSW supportedby AustralianWoolInnovationLimited. Editorial TheBreech strikeproject wasinitiatedin2006 withtheestablishment oftheresearchflock onthe Mt Barker research station inWestern Australia. SixhundredMerino ewes were sourcedfrom10 industry and3 research stationflocksfrom the Department ofAgriculture ofWesternAustralia. Theproject went through threedifferent phasesto identify therole ofpotential indicator traitsin breech strike. Phase 1 During thefirst phase(2006-2007), rates ofbreech strike of mulesed versus non-mulesed sheep were comparedtodetermine whetherthereare sheep that havenot beenmulesedthat havethesame likelihood ofbeing struck inthebreech by fliesasa mulesedflock,in a scenario where sheep are not crutched. As expected, mulesing resultedin a significant decreaseinbreech strike. However, some un-mulesed sheep wereindeedfoundthat had thesamelow risk ofbeing struck as mulesed sheep.Thisindicatedthat some sheep w ere geneticallymoreresistant to breech strikethan other sheep even when not mulesed or crutched. Phase 2 Phase2(2008-2010)focussed onthosefactors which made some sheep more resistant tobeing struck andtheresultsshowedthat dags during late winter and urine stain at post-weaning age were thetwo mostimportantfactors contributing to breech strikein un-mulesed sheep and sheepthat havenot been crutched.However, breech wrinkle had a significant interactionwithdags as a one unit increasein wrinkle score, from1to2, increased therisk ofbeing struck.Breech cover played a relativelyminor rolebut didincreasethe risk by 2-3% .These resultssupportedindustry’s perception oftheimportance ofdagsinbreech strike. Further investigationsshowedthat there were hugedifferencesbetweendifferent sireprogeny groupsintheir susceptibilityto breech strikein un- mulesed and un-crutched sheep. In2008, only 2.8% (onela mb)of themost resistant sire’s progeny were struck while a strike rate of103% was recorded fortheprogenygroup ofthemost susceptiblesire. Virtuallyevery lamb of this progeny group was struck and some were struck twicebetweenbirthandhogget shearing. These largedifferencesbetween resistant and susceptiblesireprogeny groups was a major finding but what was moreinteresting wasthat it was not possibleto visually differentiatebetween theprogeny groups using dag, urine stain, wrinkles, breech cover or any other visual indicators. Furthermore, only about 20to30% of thedifferencesinbreech strike could be explained genetically bydags, urine stain, breech cover and breech wrinkletraits, which indicatedthat other factors are contributing to makingthesusceptible sireprogeny group morepronetobreech strike. Phase 3 Thethird phase(2010-2014)of theexperiment focussed onidentifying thosefactorsthat contributedtosusceptibility and resistanceto breech strikeintheabsence of dags, i.e, when animals are crutched or shornjustprior tothefly season. Thisis representativeofproduction systemsin winter rainfall regionswhere all sheep are normally crutchedbeforetheonset of the winter/spring.This newsletter reports some ofthe most important results from thisphaseand on the latest resultsfrom our work toidentify additional factors, such as odour, that could play a rolein making susceptiblesheep more attractiveto blowflies. Tail length in unmulesed Australian Merino sheep Report for Australian Wool Innovation, December 2012 Project Number WP599 WHYSHOULD WOOLGROWERS CONSIDER USINGPAINRELIEF PRODUCTS? The supply chainsfor bothwool and meat are becoming increasingly interested in their suppliers’husbandry practices. Onfarm adoption of painrelief for mulesing has been rapid. In the ten yearssince Tri- Solfen® was first registered,75 per cent of Merinosmulesed now receive pain relief. Pain relief with a specificclaimfor knife castration and knife tail docking wasfirst registered for use in2016 and adoptionrates willbemonitoredoverthecomingyears. Pain relief with a specificclaimfor ring castration and ring taildocking isnot yet commercially available. R&Dcontinues for a techniquecalled Numnuts® whichinjects local anaestheticjust above the ring. WHATARE THEDIFFERENCES BETWEENANALGESICAND ANAESTHETIC PAINRELIEF TR EATME NTS? Analgesicsproviderelief frompain while retaining most sensory function. There are a rangeofproducts witha large variation inthe intensity and durationof pain relief provided. Activecompoundscan take 10 to 15minutes to reach optimumblood concentration and they require the pain enzymesto becreated at the site of tissue damagebeforethey can act and the release of painenzymes can also beslow to ramp up. They last for varying timesdepending on how quickly the active compound ismetabolised and excreted. • Mild to moderate pain relief: (a) Paracetamol, also known as Acetaminophen, PAIN RELIEF FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS There has been large scale adoption of post-operative pain relief (Tri-Solfen®) during the past ten years. New pre-operative products Buccalgesic® andMetacam 20® were released in 2016. Here we provide answers to some frequently asked questions about pain relief. (b) Non-Steroidal Anti-InflammatoryDrugs such as aspirin,meloxicam (Buccalgesic® and Metacam20®) and carprofen, and (c) mild Opioids suchascodeine. • Strong pain relief, Opioids suchas morphine. Opioidsact on the nervoussystem,rather than on theenzyme productionat the site of tissue damage.They can produce hallucinations and can beaddictive. (There are also other types ofdrugssuch as Corticosteroids that are injected to a site to reduce inflammation,along withAnti-anxiety and Anti-depressant drugs that alsoprovide painrelief.) Anaestheticsblockpain and sensory functionis lost. There are three main types: local,regional and general anaesthetics, most taking from 2to 10 minutes to take effect. They typically do not providelong- lasting pain relief. • Local (egdental) and regional (eg epidural) anaestheticsare administered subcutaneously or topically and desensitise a defined location. (Tri-Solfen®) • General anaesthetics createa medically induced coma,a state of unconsciousness and are administered by injectionor inhaled. Thepatient cannot move, feel pain, remember and breathing may need to beassisted. FOR WHOLE FLOCK TREATMENTS, AREANAESTHETICORANALGESIC, PRE-OPERATIVEOR POST- OPERATIVE PRODUCTS BETTER? There are no black and white answers withso many variablesand factorsto consider including: • availability of aproduct to livestock producers and veterinarians • availability of veterinary prescription and oversight • throughput required per day • restraint requirements • time and method of treatment • ability of the animal to breathe unassisted during treatment • time and supervision required posttreatment • ability of the lamb to mother up • typeof husbandrypracticeand me th od used • likelihoodofadverseimpacttohumans • degree of pain relief provided • practicality and cost. Welfaretrials offer the most valuable information about how effectivethe treatment is,yet thesestill require an overall subjectiveexpert assessment of the30 or so measures used,becauseno single measure tellsthe whole story. For specific advice contact your veterinarian. WHAT PURPOSESHASTHE APVMA APPROVED THEPAIN RELIEFPRODUCTS FOR? The Australian Pesticide and Veterinary Medicine Authority (APVMA) hasregistered productsfor the following purposes: • Tri-Solfen® for painrelief following mulesing, castrationand taildocking • Metacam20®foralleviationofpain and inflammation • Buccalgesic® for alleviation of pain and inflammation for castration and tail docking. Buccalgesic® beingapplied to the internal cheekof alamb. Metacam 20®, a subcutaneous injection high ontheneckbehindtheear. Numnuts® protoype applicator; R&D con ti nu es. Tri-Solfen®, atopical local anaestheticand antisepticgel spray. 34 ON FAR M Wrinkleand Dags are themaincauses of breech strike followed by Breech Cover and Urine Stain. AWI -funded research conducted at ArmidaleNSW(CSIRO) and Mt Barker WA (DAFWA) shows that every 0.1 reductionin breech trait scores,lowers the riskoflifetimebreechstrikeforbothmulesed and un-mulesed animals. Table 1 opposite isa summary of the Australian Sheep Breeding Values(ASBVs) of 158AIsiresfrom27Merinostuds,fromthe MERINOSELECTwebsite,listed in increasing Breech Wrinkleorder. Thevariation inAI sire stud averages are largefor Wrinkle, Cover and the key productionindexes;Breech Wrinkle averages rangesfrom-1.2to +0.9 ,Breech Cover from -1.3 to 0.3and the indexesaround 60 index points. TheWrinkle ASBV required to move to a non- mules operation without a largeincrease in chemical control,varies withfactorssuch asclimate, management systems, the size of thecommercial property and nutritional value of thepastures. Wrinkle ASBVscanbe higher for sheep raised on lowproteinand low energy country as the sheep ‘express’ less wrinkle when runin theseenvironments. In production systems withhighnutritional levels, more emphasisneeds tobeplaced on lower WrinkleASBVs. Thereare5 non-mules studslisted inthe table withdiffering wrinkle scores; StudsNine and Tenhave anAI sire average Wrinkle ASBVs of -0.3, Stud Five averages -0 .8 and StudsTwo and One average -1. 0 and -1.2. However, for sheep that are moderate or high inthe key breechtrait scores, any reduction inWrinkle,Dag and Cover will reduce the lifetime risk of breech strike. The lower the scorepre-mulesing, the lower the score post- mulesing. Breeding for goodproductivity as well as welfare is important for the commercial viability of the stud and its clients. There isa trend in the table that showsthe lower Wrinkle studshavelower Adult Fleece Weight.But somestudsbuck the trend.Stud Seven has the highest Adult FleeceWeight at +24 with a relatively low Wrinkle at -0 .4 showing the extent to which some studsand siresarebending thecurve. and thereby reducing lifetime welfarerisksand not sacrificing fleece weight. Studs withsimilar Adult Fleece Weight and Fibre Diameter canhave considerable variationin Wrinkle. StudsEight,Fourteen, Nineteenand Twenty Three have reasonably similar Adult Fleece Weights(+17, +15, +15 and+14) and FibreDiameter(-0.8, -1.1, -1.1and -0 .7) but large variation inWrinkle (-0 .3, 0 .0 , +0.1,+0.4). Thereis also considerable variationbetween the studs’AI siresfor dagsand worm resistance.These traits can be important inhigh wormand dag country and not important in low dag and low worm country. There isa trend for lower Fertility with increasing Wrinkle and Fleece Weight. However StudsThirteen,Seventeenand Twenty Two havesimilar NLW (5%,4% and 3%) and FleeceWeights(9,7, 11) but have reasonabledifferences in FibreDiameter (-0.2, -2.0and-1.1)andWrinkle(0.0,0.1and 0.4), which again showsthere are curve bending sires. StudsTwenty Four,Twenty Six and Twenty Sevenhavelow Fibre Diameter (-3.0 , -3 .0 and -2.5)andhighWrinkle+0.5,+0.6and +0.9.The pathto non-mules without a high relianceon chemicalsand other Dag reduction toolsis a longone for most low Fibre Diameter Fine and Super Fine studs, but every 0.1 reduction improveslifetimewelfare. As ASBVsbecome more robust with increasing databeing collectedbybreeders (particularly Adult Fleece Weight,Breech traits and Fertility, at joining,scanning, lambing and weaning) and withthe outcomes of the AWI Merino LifetimeProductivity project, theconfidence and speed which breeders will be able to improve productivity as well as welfare traits will increase. Knowing how geneticsand environment interact to create an animal’s phenotype on a commercial property isanimportant step inknowing what targetsto set,to maximise lifetime productivity and welfare. Breech Wrinkle and Dags are the key breech strike risk traits. Every 0.1 reduction reduces the lifetime risk of breech strike. As there is a general unfavourable relationship b et ween fleece w eig ht and wrinkle, it is important to pursuesires that are good for both (as well as fertility, growth, structure and the other resilience/welfare traits,in a balanced approach). There are sires and studs that bend this relationship; these “curve benders” are relatively higher in fleece weight and lower in w ri nkle. REDUCE THE RISK OF BREECH STRIKE LOWER WRINKLE AND DAGS 40 ON FARM Geoff Lindon Australian Wool Innovation Introduction AWI Breech Strike R&D Technical Update Maritime Museum, Sydney 12th July 2016 AWI’S BREECH FLYSTRIKE R&D TECHNICAL UPDATE PRESENTATION (July 2016) Presentation slides from AWI’s Breech Flystrike R&D Technical Update events held in 2016, 2014, 2012 and 2010. DAFWA BREECH STRIKE RESISTANCE PROJECT NEWSLETTER ISSUE 7 (July 2017) A 12-page newsletter from the Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia (DAFWA) that undertook the Breech Strike Genetics project from 2006 with funding from AWI. TAIL LENGTH IN UNMULESED AUSTRALIAN MERINO SHEEP (December 2012) A report that addresses the impact of tail length on susceptibility to breech flystrike of unmulesed Australian Merino sheep. PAIN RELIEF: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (March 2017) BREEDING LOWER WRINKLE AND DAG (June 2017) Each is a 2-page summary article from Beyond the Bale. This Project is a collaborative research effort of CSIRO Agriculture, Armidale, NSW andDepartment of Agriculture and Food WA supported by Australian Wool Innovation Limited Issue 7 Armidale November 2016 Breech Strike Genetics With completion of the Breech strike genetics projects at Armidale, this is the last newsletter in this series. The experimental program for the project was complete in 2015 once the 2014 drop progeny were recorded to yearling age. Since then, the focus has been on statistical analysis of the entire dataset and reporting to AWI. Here we include a summary of the genetic analyses and implications for the wool growing industry. We also report on some of the other activities that were undertaken in the last fewyearsfo the study. The sheep are not going to disappear just yet. The breeding flock will become part of the base ewe flock of the New England site Merino Lifetime Productivity Project and will continued to be recorded for certain traits for the next couple of yea rs. The 2014 drop progeny were the last to be fully recorded up to yearling age. The last few years of the project were a little challenging climatically for breech strike genetics work at Armidale. We went through a particularly dry period in 2013 and 2014. The flock was supplementary fed continuously from mating in early April 2013 to the end of lambing in October 2014. Alongside that, the 2013-14 fly season was particularly long; running from mid- October 2013 to late June 2014. We have conducted a genomics project using the Ovine High Density (600K) beadchip, results of which are summarised here. Dr Sonja Dominic, the CSIRO scientist who conducted the analysis regards this work as a ‘comprehensive first pass’ at investigating the genomics of breech flystrike. We have also been collecting wool and skin samples from animals in the Armidale flock for collaborative work with DAFWA and UWA on skin bacterial populations of Resistant and Susceptible sheep, and work on wool odour. In this issue Summary of genetic analyses 2 Flystrike results in 2013-14 3 Flystrike genomics project summary 4 Tail-docking methods 6 Observations of the breeding flock ewes 7 Figure 1. Armidale Breech Strike Genetics flock ewes and lambson the plots at lambing 2014 CSIRO ARMIDALE BREECH STRIKE GENETICS NEWSLETTER ISSUE 7 (November 2016) An 8-page newsletter from CSIRO Armidale that undertook the Breech Strike Genetics project from 2005 with funding from AWI. MORE INFORMATION These publications are available at www.wool.com/flystrikelatest ON FARM 45